Compiled by Alan Reifman Texas Tech University

"This is a very useful tool for academics, journalists, and students.
Thanks for taking the time to produce it."

Dr. Larry J. Sabato, University of Virginia
Director, Center for Politics; R.K. Gooch Professor and University Professor of Politics

 Helpful hints for interpreting the chart below:

       

Some additional links before we get to the chart below:


 

State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ....................14
AL Sparkman
(1946-78)
Heflin     SESSIONS

      

 
Note 1 (below) Denton SHELBY

2

 

 

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
AK Stevens
(since 68)
       

 

BEGICH
Gravel (1968-80)   F. Murkowski    

 

3

L. MURKKOWSKI  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
AZ DeConcini
(since 76)
Kyl

 

FLAKE
Goldwater
Note 4
    McCAIN        
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
AR Bumpers
(since 74)
        Lincoln   BOOZMAN
Note 5
D.Pryor     Hutchinson M.PRYOR  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
CA Hayakawa
(since 76)
  Wilson  

6

7

FEINSTEIN      
Cranston
(since 68)
      BOXER      
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
CO Haskell
(1972-78)
Armstrong H. Brown Allard

 

M. UDALL
G. Hart
(since 74)
Wirth

 Campbell (8)

Salazar/BENNET (40) BENNET
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
CT Ribicoff
(1962-80)
  Dodd   BLUMENTHAL
Weicker
(since 70)
    Lieberman  

 

33 C. MURPHY
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
DE Roth
(since '70)
       

CARPER

   
Biden
(since '72)
       

 

Kaufman (37) COONS
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ...08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
FL Stone
(since '74)
  Hawkins B. Graham     Martinez         Lemieux (45) RUBIO
Chiles
(since '70)
    Mack  

Bill NELSON

   
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
GA Nunn
(since '72)
      Cleland CHAMBLISS (not seeking re-election in 2014)
Talmadge
(since '56)
  Mattingly Fowler Coverdell

9

Z. Miller ISAKSON  
 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
HI Inouye
(Since '62)
              SCHATZ (52)
Matsunaga
(Since '76)
   

10

Akaka  

 

  HIRONO
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
ID McClure
(Since '72)
    Craig  

35

RISCH
Church
(Since '56)
  Symms   Kempthorne CRAPO    
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
IL Percy
(Since '66)
  Simon   DURBIN

 

 
Stevenson
(Since '70)
  Dixon   Moseley
Braun
Fitzgerald Obama/Burris(38) KIRK
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
IN Lugar
(Since '76)
       

 

  DONNELLY
B. Bayh
(Since '62)
  Quayle

11

    Coats E. Bayh   COATS (see earlier stint)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
IA Culver
(Since '74)
  GRASSLEY          
Clark
(Since '72)
Jepsen HARKIN    

 

(not seeking re-election in 2014)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
KS R. Dole
(Since '68)
       

12

  Brownback   MORAN
Pearson
(Since '62)
Kassebaum     ROBERTS

 

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
KY Ford
(since '74)
        Bunning   PAUL
Huddleston
(since' 72)
  McCONNELL    

 

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
LA Johnston
(since '72)
      LANDRIEU

 

 
R. Long
(since '48)
    Breaux     VITTER  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 14
ME Hathaway
(since '72)
Cohen     COLLINS

 

 
Muskie
(since '58)

13

Mitchell   Snowe

 

  KING (49)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MD Sarbanes
(since '76)
       

 

CARDIN  
Mathias
(since '68)
    MIKULSKI        
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MA KENNEDY
(since '62)
       

 

   46         Scott
Brown
WARREN
Brooke
(since '66)
Tsongas KERRY    

 

  51
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MI Riegle
(since '76)
      Abraham

STABENOW

   
Griffin
(since '66)
LEVIN      

 

(not seeking re-election in 2014)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MN H.Humphrey
(since '70) 14
Duren
berger
    Grams

Dayton

KLOBUCHAR  
Anderson
(since '76)
Boschwitz   Wellstone

15

Coleman FRANKEN (43)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MS Eastland
(since '42)
COCHRAN      

 

 
Stennis
(since '47)
    Lott  

 

(36) WICKER

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MO Danforth
(since '76)
      Ashcroft

16

Talent

McCASKILL  
Eagleton
(since '68)
    Bond       BLUNT
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
MT Metcalf
(since '60) 17
BAUCUS      

 

(54)
Melcher
(since '76)
    Burns  

 

TESTER  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NE Curtis
(since '54)
Exon     Hagel

 

JOHANNS
(
not seeking re-election in 2014)
Zorinsky
(since '76)
   

18

Kerrey  

Ben Nelson

  FISCHER
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NV Laxalt
(since '74)
REID    
Cannon
(since '58)
  Hecht Bryan  

Ensign

48 HELLER
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NH McIntyre
(since '62)
G. Humphrey   R. Smith   Sununu SHAHEEN
Durkin
(since '75)
  Rudman   Gregg   41 AYOTTE
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NJ Case
(since '54)
Bradley     Torricelli Lautenberg 53 (BOOKER)
Williams
(since '58)
 

19

Lautenberg
(above)
   

Corzine

32

MENENDEZ  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NM Domenici
(since '72)
       

 

T. UDALL
Schmitt
(since '76)
  Bingaman         HEINRICH
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NY Moynihan
(since '76)
       

Clinton

39   GILLIBRAND
Javits
(since '56)
  D'Amato     SCHUMER    
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
NC Helms
(since '72)
        E. Dole HAGAN
Morgan
(since '74)
  East 20 Sanford Faircloth Edwards BURR
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
ND Burdick
(since '60)
   

21

Conrad

 

  HEITKAMP
M. Young
(since '45)
  Andrews Conrad
(above)
Dorgan     HOEVEN
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
OH Glenn
(since '74)
        Voinovich PORTMAN  
Metzenbaum
(since '76)
      DeWine

 

Sherrod BROWN  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
OK Bartlett
(since '72)
Boren  

 

22

INHOFE

 

 
Bellmon
(since '68)
  Nickles       COBURN 55
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
OR M. Hatfield
(since '66)
G. Smith

 

MERKLEY
Packwood
(since '68)
     

 

23

WYDEN    
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
PA Schweiker
(since '68)
  Specter       42 TOOMEY
Heinz
(since '76)
     

24

Santorum

 

CASEY  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
RI J. Chafee
(since '76)
25 L. Chafee WHITEHOUSE  
Pell
(since '60)
      REED

 

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
SC Thurmond
(since '56) 26
        L. GRAHAM  
Hollings
(since '66)
          DeMint (50)   T. SCOTT
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
SD Abourezk
(since '72)
Pressler     T. JOHNSON

 

(not seeking re-election in 2014)
McGovern
(since '62)
  Abdnor Daschle     THUNE  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
TN Sasser
(since '76)
      Frist CORKER  
H.Baker
(since '66)
  Gore, Jr.

 

27

  Thompson ALEXANDER  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
TX Tower
(since '61)
  Gramm     CORNYN  
Bentsen
(since '70)
   

 

2
8
  Hutchison

 

44

CRUZ
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
UT HATCH
(since '76)
       

 

   
Garn
(since '74)
      Bennett     LEE
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
VT LEAHY
(since '74)
             
Stafford
(since '71)
    Jeffords  

29

SANDERS  
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
VA Scott
(since '72)
J. Warner      

 

M. WARNER
H. Byrd, 30
(since '65)
  Trible Robb  

Allen

Webb KAINE
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
WA Jackson
(since '52)
    3
1
  Evans Gorton  

CANTWELL

   
Magnuson
(since '44)
  Gorton
(above)
Adams MURRAY      
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
WV R. Byrd
(since '58)
       

 

  (47) MANCHIN  
Randolph
(since '58)
  ROCKEFELLER    

 

(not seeking re-election in 2014)
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
WI Proxmire
(since '57)
    Kohl  

 

  BALDWIN
G. Nelson
(since '62)
  Kasten   Feingold   R. JOHNSON
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
WY Wallop
(since '76)
      Thomas

 

(34) BARRASSO  
Hansen
(since '66)
Simpson     ENZI

 

 
State Through End of 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 ..06 ....08 ...........10 ................12 ...................14
Democratic Seats* 58 45 45 47 55 55 56 57 46 45 46 50+ 48+ 44+ 49++ 57++ 51++ 53++
Republican Seats* 41 54 55 53 45 45 44 43 54 55 54 49 51 55 49 41 47 45
States with Both Senators from Same Party* (a possible sign of polarized voting) 23 24 27 27 28 29 27 30 31 30 31 36 36 36 34 38 33 33

*Because of turnover in a seat during a given two-year cycle where party affiliation changed hands, or instances of a given senator switching parties mid-cycle, the exact totals of Democrats and Republicans (and related statistics) during such a cycle will differ, depending on the specific moment in question.  The listed totals, therefore, would only be applicable for part of a given cycle and should thus be treated as approximations. 

+Indicates that the party also has/had an Independent caucusing with it (or two, with ++).

1.  J. Allen (elected in 1968-died in 78); succeeded briefly by appointee M. Allen; Stewart won special election and served 1978-80.

2.  Shelby switched to the Republicans 11/9/94.

3.  L. Murkowski appointed 12/20/02 for final two years of term, after F. Murkowski became governor.

4.  Goldwater served two non-consecutive stints from 1952-64 and 1968-86.

5.  McClellan served from 1942 until death in 1977, briefly succeeded by appointee Hodges until 78 election.

6.  Seymour was appointed to Senate after Wilson's 1990 election as governor; lost for re-election in 92.

7.  Feinstein elected in 1992 special election for last two years of term.

8.  Campbell elected as a Democrat in 1992 and switched to the Republicans 3/3/95.

9.  Coverdell died 7/18/00.  Z. Miller appointed as replacement by governor, then prevailed in 2000 special election to fill out remaining four years of term.

10.  Matsunaga died 4/15, 1990.  Akaka appointed as replacement by governor, then prevailed in 1990 special election to fill out remaining four years of term.

11.  Coats was appointed to Senate to replace Quayle, who was elected Vice-President in 1988.  Coats won a 1990 special election for the remaining years in Quayle's term, then was re-elected in 1992 for a full six-year term.

12.  R. Dole resigned on 6/11/96 to focus on presidential campaign.  Frahm appointed to succeed Dole, but lost special election to Brownback.

13.  Muskie resigned 5/7/80 to become U.S. Secretary of State.  Mitchell appointed to serve remaining two years of term.

14. H. Humphrey died on 1/13/78.  M. Humphrey appointed as successor, but did not run in '78 in special election for last four years of H. Humphrey's term.  Durenberger won special election.

15.  Barkley appointed as interim seat-holder, related to pre-election aviation fatality of Wellstone.

16.  J. Carnahan appointed to first two years of six-year term (2000-2002) after M. Carnahan elected posthumously in 2000.  J. Carnahan lost 2002 special election for final four years of term to Talent.

17.  Metcalf died on 1/12/78.  P. Hatfield appointed for final year of Metcalf's term, but then lost nomination for six-year term.

18. Zorinsky died on 3/ 6/87.  Karnes appointed to fill out the term, but lost for re-election in 1988.

19.  Williams resigned on 3/11/82 in connection with Abscam scandal.  Brady appointed to fill vacancy and served out rest of 1982 (which was ending year of six-year term anyway); did not seek re-election.

20.  East committed suicide on 6//29/86.  Broyhill appointed to seat; lost for re-election to six-year term.

21.  Burdick died on 9/8/92.  His wife Jocelyn was appointed to fill the seat temporarily.  Conrad, having announced his retirement from North Dakota's other U.S. Senate seat before the 1992 election, won a special election later in '92 for Burdick's seat.

22.  Boren resigned on 11/15/94 to become president of the University of Oklahoma.  Inhofe won 1994 special election.

23.  Packwood resigned effective 10/1/95.  Wyden won special election on 1/30/96 for remainder of term.

24.  Heinz killed in airplane crash 4/4/91.  Wofford first appointed, then won special election in '91 for remainder of Heinz's term.

25.  J. Chafee died on 10/24/99.  L. Chafee appointed in '99.

26.  Thurmond switched from Democratic to Republican  9/16/64.

27.  Mathews appointed to succeed Gore in 1993 when the latter became Vice President; Mathews did not enter the '94 special election for the remainder of Gore's term.

28.  Bentsen resigned in 1993 to become Treasury Secretary.  Krueger appointed in '93, but lost special election that year.

29.  Jeffords switched to Independent 6/5/01.

30.  Originally was a Democrat.

31.  Jackson died on 9/1/83.  Evans was initially appointed as successor and won special election in '83.

32.  Corzine elected governor, appoints Robert Menendez, who is sworn in on 1/18/06.

33.  Lieberman lost Democratic primary for U.S. Senate in 2006, but won re-election as an Independent.  He has said he will continue to caucus with the Democrats (for further information).

34.  Thomas died on June 4, 2007; John Barrasso appointed as successor.  Barrasso won special election in 2008 for final four years of Thomas's term.

35.  Craig announces his "intent to resign from the Senate effective Sept. 30 [2007]"   He will complete his term, after all, then retire.

36.  Lott announced on November 26, 2007 that he would vacate his term early, by the end of the year.  Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour will make an interim appointment and has called for a special election in November 2008 to fill the remainder of Lott's term.  The timing of a special election is under some contention.  The new appointee to the Senate is Roger Wicker.  Wicker won a special election in 2008 for the remainder of Lott's term.

37.  In 2008, Biden was simultaneously re-elected to the Senate and elected as Vice-President of the United States.  Ted Kaufman was named by outgoing Gov. Ruth Ann Minner (D) to succeed Biden in the Senate, until a special election in 2010.  Kaufman will retire at this time.

38. Obama was elected President of the United States in 2008.  Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich (D), charged with conducting a "pay to play" operation to determine Obama's replacement, has nevertheless appointed Roland Burris to fill the final two years of Obama's Senate term.  As of 1/6/09, the U.S. Senate is not recognizing Burris's appointment.  Burris was sworn in on 1/15/09.

39. Clinton was nominated by President-Elect Obama to be Secretary of State, beginning in 2009.  Pending successful confirmation to this post, a replacement for her in the Senate will be named.  Kirsten Gillibrand was named by New York Gov. David Paterson (D) as Clinton's replacement; a special election will be held in 2010 for the remainder of this seat's term (which is up again with the 2012 election).

40. Salazar has been nominated by President-Elect Obama to be Secretary of the Interior.  Colorado Gov. Bill Ritter (D) has appointed Michael Bennet to fill the remaining two years of Salazar's term, pending Salazar's confirmation.

41. Gregg was nominated by President Obama to be Secretary of Commerce.  New Hampshire Gov. John Lynch (D) has appointed Bonnie Newman to fill the remaining two years of Gregg's term, pending Gregg's confirmation.  Contrary to the tradition of a governor appointing someone of the same party to the Senate, Newman is a Republican.  Newman apparently has pledged not to run in 2010 for a full six-year term in the seat.   Gregg reverses himself, saying he will not follow through on becoming Commerce Secretary; he will stay in the Senate until his term expires in 2010 and then retire (article).

42. Specter announces plans to switch to the Democratic party (4/28/09).

43. Minnesota Supreme Court rules for Al Franken, Sen. Coleman concedes, ending dispute over 2008 election (6/30/09).

44. Hutchison will resign her seat early (some time in fall 2009) to begin her run for governor in 2010.  Texas Gov. Rick Perry can appoint a short-term interim senator, but a special election is expected by May 2010. Hutchison changes plans; will serve remainder of her term, until 2012.

45. Martinez announced that he will vacate his seat before the end of his term, leaving it to Florida Gov. Charlie Crist to appoint a successor  (8/7/09).  Crist appoints George LeMieux to complete the remainder of Martinez's term, which is up for election in November 2010.

46. Kennedy died on August 25, 2009. A special election will be held later, perhaps in January 2010. Whether Massachusetts Gov. Deval Patrick will be able to appoint a temporary successor is still pending.  Gov. Patrick (D) has appointed Paul Kirk as a temporary seat-holder, until the January 19 special election. Scott Brown (R) wins seat for the remaining years of Kennedy's term.

47. Byrd died on June 28, 2010. Gov. Joe Manchin (D) appoints Carte Goodwin as interim seat-holder, with special election probably scheduled for November 2010 to fill final two years of Byrd's term.

48. Ensign resigns before the end of his term, effective May 3, 2011. Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval announces he will appoint Rep. Dean Heller (R) to fill the remainder of the term.

49. Independent Senator-elect King announces he will caucus with the Democrats.

50. DeMint resigns to become head of the Heritage Foundation. Gov. Nikki Haley (R) appoints Rep. Tim Scott (R), who will serve until special election in 2014.

51. Kerry appointed by President Obama to be Secretary of State and confirmed by Senate. Pending Kerry's confirmation, "Governor Deval Patrick [D] would have to appoint a temporary replacement while a special election campaign is held in the ensuing 145 days to 160 days" (link). Gov. Patrick appoints Mo Cowan to replace Kerry, until the June 25, 2013 special election. The winner of the special election would finish Kerry's term, which is up for election in 2014. Democratic Rep. Edward Markey wins special election to hold seat until 2014 general election.

52. Inouye died on December 17, 2012. Gov. Neil Abercrombie (D) appoints Lt. Gov. Brian Schatz to seat. "The appointment is good until the 2014 elections, when another election will be held for the right to serve out the final two years of Inouye’s term, which expires in 2016" (link).

53. Lautenberg died on June 3, 2013. Gov. Chris Christie (R) has set the dates for special primary and general elections to replace Lautenberg. Jeff Chiesa (R) has been named interim Senator. Cory Booker (D) wins special election on October 16 to fill out remainder of Lautenberg's term.

54. Baucus nominated for, and confirmed to be, U.S. Ambassador to China. Montana Gov. Steve Bullock (D) appoints Lt. Gov. John Walsh to seat.

55. Coburn announces he will leave Senate in November 2014, with two years remaining in his term.

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If you have any corrections or suggestions, please e-mail Dr. Reifman.